Download e-book for iPad: Textbook on organic chemistry by Arthur Israel Vogel

By Arthur Israel Vogel

ISBN-10: 0582442451

ISBN-13: 9780582442450

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10 2 Solute-Solvent Interactions From the idea that the solvent only provides an indi¤erent reaction medium, comes the Ruggli-Ziegler dilution principle, long known to the organic chemist. According to this principle, in the case of cyclization reactions, the desired intramolecular reaction will be favoured over the undesired intermolecular reaction by high dilution with an inert solvent [18, 310]. The assumption of forces of interaction between solvent and solute led, on the other hand, to the century-old principle that ‘‘like dissolves like’’ (similia similibus solvuntur), where the word ‘‘like’’ should not be too narrowly interpreted.

2-3b. Unless the dipole molecules are very voluminous, the second arrangement is the more stable one. The two situations exist only when the attractive energy is larger than the thermal energies. Therefore, the thermal energy will normally prevent the dipoles from optimal orientation. If all possible orientations were equally probable, that is, the dipoles correspond to freely rotating molecules, then attraction and repulsion would compensate each other. The fact that dipole orientations leading to attraction are statistically favoured leads to a net attraction, which is strongly temperature dependent, according to Eq.

Even mixtures of some hydrophilic ionic liquids and some specific hydrophobic ionic liquids can be immiscible and give rise to two phases. A stable tetraphasic solvent mixture containing two immiscible ionic liquids is formed by (from top to bottom) n-pentane, tri(n-hexyl)-n-tetradecylphosphonium chloride, water, and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide [414]. ) develops four layers; addition of n-pentane changes the sequence of the two upper layers. 2 Intermolecular Forces [26, 27, 182–184] Intermolecular forces are those which can occur between closed-shell molecules [26, 27].

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Textbook on organic chemistry by Arthur Israel Vogel


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